Cuza, Iaşi Prof. Cuza, Iaşi Dr. Regina Elisabeta, nr. Hazard Vulnerabilitate Risc, Edit. The map of vulnerability to hydrogeomorphological processes occurring in the plain landforms plain units is a synthetic map emphasizing the present state of topographic relief evolution, the trend of change of hydrogeomorphological systems and the evolution of man-environment relationships. Being a synthetic cartographic representation, it relies on analytical maps, developed on the base of quantitative indexes.

The paper aims to analyze the main factors that determine the vulnerability of the study area Mostistea catchement. For the Romanian Plain, where quasi-horizontal interfluves and shallow channels are widespread, the assessment of vulnerability to hydrogeomorphological erode tip dating relied both on common and on specific criteria for the two major landform units.

In order to assess some of the landscape features several morphometric indexes were computed with regard to the almost flat surfaces to the channels of the rivers capable of flooding the adjacent plains, and to the channel processes. Subsequently, analytical maps were prepared based on the obtained values.

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By employing GIS techniques, we finally came up with two synthetic vulnerability maps, one for the interfluves and the other one for the river channels. Keywords: vulnerability, hydrogeomorphological hazard, rivers, flat interfluves, Romanian Plain. Introduction, objectives and study area The map of vulnerability to hydrogeomorphological processes of the floodplains emphasizes not only the present state of relief dynamics and the trend of change of hydrogeomorphological systems, but also the evolution of man-environment relationships.

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Being this a synthetic cartographic representation, it relies on previously developed analytical maps. The first stage of the investigation consisted in a detailed assessment of the factors influencing relief dynamics, as eugene online dating as in the analysis of morpho dynamic potential and geomorphological processes.

This method was tested on selected areas in the Romanian Plain, a Quaternary physiographic division, formed within a former sedimentary basin, which long ago was lying inside the Carpathian- Balkanic arch Vîlsan, These territories are part of the Mostiştea Plain, which is situated in the eastern section of the Romanian Plain, east of the Arges Erode tip dating Fig. Here, the Upper Pleistocene deposits, which are responsible for the formation and dynamics of micro-landforms, overlie the Mostiştea sands Grecu et.

In order to assess some of the landscape features several morphometric indexes were computed with regard to the quasi-horizontal surfaces vulnerable to compaction, piping, salting, salinization or waterloggingto the channels of the rivers capable of flooding the adjacent territories, and to the channel processes lateral erosion, meandering, caving-ins of the riverbanks and sedimentation within the channels Grecu erode tip dating.

In the plain regions, the hazards affecting the interfluves and those affecting the channels have distinct genesis and dynamics, hence the necessity to make the respective vulnerability maps based on specific criteria. Revista d e geo morfologie vol. They served as a base map erode tip dating the digitization erode tip dating contours, elevations and perennial and ephemeral streams.

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Method There are several methods allowing the developing of vulnerability map, but each of them erode tip dating necessarily take into account the geographical and geological features of the study area, which derive from the geographical location of the territory. The present study deals with a plain unit quite homogeneous from the geological and climatic points of view. Unlike the classic method of analyzing land vulnerability based on the arithmetic mean of the features shown by the thematic maps taken into accountour approach was somehow different.

The values of the density of loess sinkholes were reclassified by assigning them points from 1 to 6, while the areas with different types of collapsible rocks were given values from 7 to 9 points. In order 7 Vulnerability map to hydro-geomorphological processes Romanian Plain 7 to establish the intervals with different degrees of vulnerability we multiplied the reclassified viteză dating bangor and we obtained six categories of vulnerability to field hydrogeomorphological processes especially sagging and pipingas follows: stable land less than 14 pointslow vulnerability pointsmedium vulnerabilityhigh vulnerability and very high vulnerability.

The IV interfluvial vulnerability map has a scale of Table 1.

In order to create the vulnerability map to hydrogeomorphological processes of the areas lying along the river courses the product obtained by multiplying the attributes of quantitative maps drainage density map and relative relief map Fig.

A particular attention was paid to the position of settlements within the channels and to the distance separating them from the river. Thus, the following five categories of vulnerability to the channel hydrogeomorphological processes were obtained: stable land less than 6 pointslow vulnerability 6. Index classification on categories of fluvial vulnerability Erode tip dating reclasification Local relief value m Ater reclasification density X local relief Vulnerability classes stable cources low medium high very high 4.

The vulnerability map 4. The vulnerability map to interfluvial processes Judging from the geomorphological processes specific for the flat interfluves patruzeci de zile de întâlnire după the Mostistea catchment the most important erode tip dating that might influence the occurrence and distribution of loess sinkholes are the following: land morphology and geomorphological processes, sinkhole morphometry density, circularity ratio, elongation ratio, shape factor and sinuosity index ; soil conditions soil type ; physical, mechanical and chemical properties of the loess formations; thickness of loess deposits; depth of water table Liteanu, ; digital elevation model; digital model of slope gradients, derived from the DEM; land use Corine Land Cover Drainage density X local relief Fig.

Slope X lateral cutting 9 Vulnerability map to hydro-geomorphological processes Romanian Plain 9 Land morphology and geomorphological processes. Sagging is more yu ram dating in endorheic and semiendorheic areas e.

The resulted landforms are represented especially by loess sinkholes. Loess sinkholes have the highest density on the Ciornuleasa flatland and on the third terrace of the Danube, where the high thickness of loessoid deposits and the deep water table have encouraged the appearance of some small 10 m 2 to 3.

In the northern part of the catchment and on the Ialomiţa Mostiştea interfluve, loess sinkholes have a lower density, erode tip dating their area is larger and sinuosity coefficient is high. In order to establish as erode tip dating as possible the vulnerability to hydrogeomorphological processes, the sagging areas identified on topographic maps and ortophotoplans were correlated with the distribution of typical phreatic-wet chernozems, levigated chernozems weakly eluviated affected by pseudogleyzation phenomena found in loess sinkholes and sagging areasphreatic-wet cambic chernozems and phreatic-wet, levigated vertic chernozems, affected by gleyzation.

In the Mostistea catchment, three areas with collapsible loess formations have been identified based on the values of an index that evaluates wet loess compaction under self-weight I mg according to the Normative regarding the foundation of constructions on collapsible grounds sensitive to damping, Technical University of Constructions, Bucharest, In order to assess supplementary sagging, other indexes were taken into account: granulometry, chemical-mineralogical composition, thickness of loessoid deposit, plasticity, shear resistance under natural and flooded conditions, sagging, volumetric weight, skeletal density erode tip dating so on.

According to how these soils behave when become wet, they can be classified as follows: Group A: soils that experience a supplementary sagging I mg less than 5 cm; A 1 with continuous spread in the Mostiştea Plain ; A 2 with discontinuous dating în kabwe in the central section, and especially on the terraces of the Olt and the Danube ; Group B: soils that experience a supplementary sagging I mg equal with or higher than 5 cm.

Depending on the compaction rate under selfweight, values were assigned to each soil category so that to obtain results as reliable as possible in the aftermath of their multiplication by the values referring to the density of loess sinkholes.

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In this way, five classes of values were established, from stable lands to highly vulnerable ones. The vulnerability map of interfluvial areas lying within the Mostiştea catchment mirrors the existence of some sections with high and very high vulnerability to sagging and tunnel erosion Erode tip dating.

The sagging areas have developed on loessoid deposits, cm thick, which when wet experience supplementary sagging under self-weight, with I mg values higher than 40 cm collapsible loesses B 1. Here, the bad conditions for surface flow endorheic and semi-endorheic areas and the high depth of water table 30 erode tip dating and even more have conditioned the appearance and development of underground erosion phenomena.

On these territories, collapsible deposits with supplementary sagging values less than 5 cm collapse A 1 or less than 40 cm collapse B 1 prevail. Here, the typical loess is 10 to 15 cm thick erode tip dating the water table lies between 5 and 10 m deep, which explains the low density of sagging areas Land vulnerability map to fluvial processes As far as the channels are concerned, their dynamics is strongly influenced by the relative altitude, the drainage density, the presence of stretches with steep banks, the banks gradients and the distance to the nearest settlement or built-up area.

Relative altitude ranges from 90 to 11 m. The drainage density the values were reclassified through raster multiplication density multiplied by energy resulting six classes of vulnerability from stable lands to highly vulnerable areas. The presence of stretches with steep banks stretches of steep-sided valleys were identified and mapped in the field.

Subsequently, they were multiplied by the gradients of the river thalwegs. By doing this, we identified the stretches with high and very high vulnerability lying along the middle Săruleşti and Valea Argovei and lower course Lake Mostiştea of the Mostiştea River. The banks gradients several stretches with steep banks were identified and dating flagstaff arizona.

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The distance to the nearest settlement or builtup area. The mapped valley stretches affected by erosion processes were correlated with the gradient values and thus a vulnerability map to the valley processes came into existence. In order to highlight as accurately as possible the stretches vulnerable to the channel processes these two products were in their turn multiplied and the result was the vulnerability map to river processes Fig.

From the analysis of vulnerability map, we were able to conclude that stable lands and the areas with low and medium vulnerability are prevalent However, at Săruleşti, Gurbăneşti, Valea Argovei and around Lake Mostiştea, the risk induced by channel processes is high detachments, collapses and lateral erosion.

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Consequently, the built-up areas settlements and the agricultural lands stretching along the river s middle and lower course are prone to degradation expressed through riverbank retreat.

Interfluvial vulnerability map Table 3. Fluvial vulnerability map 5. Conclusions - The plain areas in general and erode tip dating Romanian Plain in particular, are difficult to decipher from the geomorphological point of view.

However, field investigations and the employment of proper study methods lead to pertinent conclusions regarding the lowlands hydrogeomorphological dynamics, which are very useful for human society. The development of the vulnerability map is based on quantitative analysis undertaken at different moments in time.

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Thus, the outcome is a qualitative map, which allows an easier comparison of the areas exposed to different types of processes. Applications to hazard and risk diagnosis in areas of Romanian Plain" Director, Prof.

Grecu Florina. The analysis of vulnerability to hydrogeomorphological processes is important for the proper management of the associated risks. Metode de evaluare în geomorfologie, Edit. Studiu de geomorfologie integrată. Ceres, Bucuresti. Arvin Press, Bucuresti, p. Universității erode tip dating București. Universității din București, A4. Preliminary observation, Revista de Geomorfologie, 12, Edit.

Universităţii Al. Cuza Iasi, p.

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Studiu geografic, Edit. Ars Docendi, Bucureşti, Academiei Române, p. Hammam-Lif et Ezzahra, deux parmi les principales communes de la banlieue sud de Tunis, ont connu tout au long de la deuxième moitié du siècle passé jusqu à nos jours une remarquable extension urbaine qui s est traduite par la création depuis de deux communes nouvelles : Hammam-Chatt et Bou M hal-bassatine.

Mais, cette urbanisation s est faite dans beaucoup de cas dans des zones inondables. En effet, les grands événements pluviométriques des dernières années septembreoctobreavril et septembre et les débordements plus ou moins gênants qu ils ont engendrés ont fait surgir les nombreuses erreurs d aménagement du territoire commises dans ces communes.

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Et l on s est aperçu, une fois de plus, que l extension urbaine dans bon nombre de nos villes n a pas toujours respecté les cours d eau. Outre l examen du cadre morpho-hydrologique contraignant dans lequel cette extension s est faite, cette étude essaye de montrer que les erreurs d aménagement et l augmentation des enjeux en zones inondables jouent un rôle déterminant en termes d aggravation du risque hydrologique.

Mots-Clés : Banlieue-sud, extension urbaine, forêt de Bou Garnine, vulnérabilité au risque d inondation. Introduction Au pied du Erode tip dating Bou Garnine, qui constitue l extrémité nord-est de la Dorsale tunisienne, s étendent quatre parmi les principales communes qui forment la banlieue sud du Grand Tunis Fig.

A l est et au nord-est de ce jebel, les communes de Hammam-Lif et Hammam-Chatt se sont étalées sur une étroite plaine littorale dont la largeur n excède guère 1 à 1,5 km. L habitat y est très dense et erode tip dating poursuit de façon pratiquement ininterrompue jusqu à Borj Cedria.

Les sols y ont été alors presque totalement imperméabilisés favorisant ainsi le ruissellement. Lors des pluies intenses, une telle situation s avère d autant plus gênante que cette frange côtière est également traversée par deux axes de communication, parmi les plus stratégiques du pays.

Il s agit en l occurrence de la GP1 et de la voie ferrée qui part de Tunis vers le Sud. Les deux font barrage aux écoulements qui drainent les versants est dudit jebel provoquant ainsi des débordements de plus en plus fréquents qui ont, à maintes reprises, paralysé la circulation automobile et piétonne.

Au nord du Bou Garnine, la commune d Ezzahra ex-st. Germain s est élargie essentiellement vers l ouest et le nord-ouest sur les terres basses et très faiblement inclinées du Bas Miliane.

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Plusieurs quartiers appartenant à cette commune sont actuellement confrontés à de sérieux problèmes de drainage des eaux pluviales. Forte de son importante réserve foncière, la jeune commune Bou M hal-bassatine est en train de s étaler sur les piémonts nord-ouest de cet ensemble montagneux.

Là aussi, l extension rapide du bâti et le développement du réseau routier sont en train de modifier le comportement hydrologique des cours d eau comme l attestent les nombreux débordements qui s y sont produits au cours des dernières années.

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La partie montagneuse de cette zone est caractérisée par un couvert végétal forestier relativement dense. Cependant, ses caractéristiques morpho-lithologiques sont plutôt favorables à la concentration rapide des écoulements.

On s attellera dans ce qui suit à démontrer que, dans un tel contexte, l urbanisation à outrance des plaines environnantes et les multiples imprudences commises lors des opérations d aménagement ont incontestablement accru la vulnérabilité de la zone erode tip dating au risque d inondation. Localisation de la zone d étude 2.

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Contraintes et atouts du milieu biophysique 2. Un cadre morphostructural plutôt contraignant Un secteur dominé par sexy mătușă locală jebels aux versants raides avec une lithologie favorable au ruissellement Le erode tip dating étudié est prédominé par un relief montagneux aux pentes assez fortes Fig.

Le Jebel Bou Garnine culmine à m. Il est formé essentiellement de calcaires et de dolomies jurassiques qui ont un comportement extrusif car ils sont intercalés entre erode tip dating couches plus ou moins plastiques : les dépôts gypseux du Trias à la base et les marnes calcaires du Crétacé au sommet. Bou Garnine serait donc un noyau perçant ayant giclé à travers les assises sus-jacentes suite à des mouvements verticaux du socle Castany, A l ouest du Bou Garnine, des calcaires éocènes très résistants, souvent dressés à la verticale, forment une barre de direction méridienne qui constitue la retombée occidentale de l anticlinorium.

Topographiquement, cette barre correspond à Jebel Ghorof culminant à m Karray, Caractéristiques hypsométriques autour de l extrémité nord du Jebel Bou Garnine Fig.

Répartition fréquentielle des classes de pentes autour de l extrémité nord du Bou Garnine 15 Extension urbaine et risque d inondation autour de l extrémité septentrionale du Jebel Bou Garnine 15 A l est, une importante crête qui culmine à m s aligne sur plus de 8 kilomètres depuis l Oued Chouchana au nord Fig.

D après M. Karray cet alignement correspond à un crêt majeur regardant vers l ouest et qui est formé par des calcaires du Turonien-Campanien erode tip dating surmontent d épaisses alternances marno-calcaires d âge albo-cénomanien. Le versant est de ce crêt correspond donc à un revers. En somme, cette unité morphostructurale se distingue par des pentes fortes à très fortes, par des sols somme toute assez minces qui ont une faible capacité de stockage et erode tip dating des affleurements géologiques à dominante marno-calcaire caractérisés par une faible perméabilité dans l ensemble.

Toutes ces caractéristiques sont à priori favorables à un ruissellement très actif. L hypsométrie et l hydrographie autour de l extrémité septentrionale du Jebel Bou Garnine 16 evreiesc australia Noômène FEHRI Des plaines basses et exiguës raccordées aux versants par des piémonts étroits Au cours de la dernière glaciation Würmles oueds qui descendent les reliefs montagneux ont eu un fonctionnement torrentiel.

Ils ont alors édifié des cônes de déjection souvent coalescents. Ces cônes sont constitués d éléments très hétérométriques issus de la fragmentation de la roche mère, essentiellement marno-calcaire.

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La plaine du Bas Miliane. Des côtés ouest et nord-ouest, le Jebel Bou Garnine se raccorde à une basse plaine sur laquelle s étendent actuellement les communes d Ezzahra et Bou M hal Bassatine Fig. Il s agit de la plaine synclinale subsidente du Mornag-Bas Miliane.

Celle-ci est limitée à l est par les jebels Ressass et Bou Garnine et à l ouest par les collines de Megrine-Radès. Au nord, elle débouche sur le Golfe de Tunis. Les assises tertiaires de cette plaine sont souvent couvertes par une accumulation sablo-argilo-tuffeuse d âge Quaternaire pouvant faire mètres d épaisseur Karray, Ces épaisses accumulations sont pour l essentiel l œuvre de l oued Miliane l un des principaux cours d eau de la Tunisie septentrionale.

Actuellement, les crues de cet oued sont régularisées grâce à des barrages et des lacs collinaires construits dans son bassin amont Barrage de Bir M charga, Barrage El- Hama. La plaine littorale erode tip dating Hammam-Lif. D une largeur qui n excède guère les deux kilomètres, cette étroite plaine constitue le prolongement vers erode tip dating nord-ouest de la plaine de Soliman-Grombalia.

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Cette dernière correspond structuralement erode tip dating un vaste fossé d effondrement graben décollé de la Dorsale par une multitude de flexures et de failles généralement orientées NO-SE Karray, Ces plaines basses et étroites se situent aux débouchés d une série d oueds, certes de petite taille, mais qui peuvent avoir un comportement torrentiel car ils descendent les pentes fortes du massif de Bou Garnine.

Principaux éléments du paysage autour de l extrémité de la Dorsale tunisienne Jebel Bou Garnine et ses environs 2.